The federal Energy Information Administration on Tuesday
projected the price of regular gasoline, now averaging $2.96 a gallon
nationwide, will hit a monthly average near $3.40 by spring.
The prediction of higher prices comes even as the economy is
slowing, which could weaken energy demand and cause prices to soften.
But the federal agency is predicting that petroleum supplies will be
tight enough to push the national average gas price past the record,
which AAA says was $3.23 a gallon, set last May.
Moreover, an unusually high number of refinery outages or other disruptions could push prices even higher.
"Volatility is part of the picture," said Neil Gamson, an analyst for the Energy Information Administration.
Prices could ease somewhat after the spring surge, but they’re
still expected to average about 26 cents a gallon more this year than
the $2.81 average during 2007.
The federal energy agency’s longer-term forecast is for gas prices to average $3.08 a gallon in 2009.
Higher crude oil prices have kept gasoline prices up over the
winter, when they normally decline. A year ago, a barrel of West Texas
Intermediate crude was selling for $57.81. On Tuesday, a barrel cost
A lesson in the volatility of the oil market came in recent
days, when Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez threatened to stop oil
shipments to the U.S. Though observers don’t expect him to entirely cut
off the U.S., on Tuesday Chavez said he would suspend sales to Exxon
"Chavez was able to raise oil prices enough that it could cause
gas prices to rise 10 cents a gallon," said James Williams, an
economist for WTRG Economics, which tracks energy prices.
With crude oil prices around $90 the last few months, it could
have been worse at the pump for consumers. But the rise in oil prices
roughly coincided with a collapse in refinery margins, which is the
difference between the price of West Texas Intermediate crude and
At one point last spring, the refineries’ take was more than $1
per gallon. This winter, the refinery margins have been below 10 cents
a gallon, in part because of the season’s lower demand for gasoline.
But if oil prices remain high when refinery margins rise again,
higher gasoline pump prices are assured. That’s what federal energy
officials believe will unfold over the next few months.
That outlook is not embraced by everyone.
A recession, if it happens, would weaken demand for gasoline —
demand that is already flat in the U.S. A recent government report
showing rising inventories led Societe Generale, a French investment
banking firm, to say that it could trigger a "breakout to the
Lewis Adam, president of Admo Energy in Kansas City, which
helps companies manage their energy price risks, said he believed gas
prices were set to rise — but there is no guarantee.
"I just don’t think it’s a certainty," he said.
But some consumer groups are convinced prices are set to spike
— and that Big Oil will do whatever it takes to curtail supplies to
ensure higher prices.
Such fears were stoked recently when Tesoro Corp., which has
refineries in the western U.S., said it was scaling back production
because of weak refinery margins.
"It’s almost impossible that prices wouldn’t go up," said Judy
Dugan, research director for the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer
Rights in Santa Monica, Calif.
Bill Klesse, chief executive officer of Valero Energy Corp.,
the nation’s biggest refiner, believes those margins will go up simply
because of natural market conditions.
Despite mounting fears of recession in the U.S., worldwide
demand for fuel will be up, Klesse said, noting that some other
countries are increasing their imports of gasoline. The amount of time
that refineries will be down for
maintenance also is likely to be more than is expected. And the
inventories will decline as that maintenance continues over the next
The result, he recently told analysts and investors gathered
for an industry conference in Vail, Colo., is a market not unlike what
it was a year ago, when gasoline refinery margins began to rise.
"We just see the fundamentals as still good," Klesse said.
For companies like Valero, refining margins can be even higher
than they appear. Valero and many other companies have upgraded their
refineries so they can handle heavier, "sour" grades of oil, which cost
less than better grade such as West Texas Intermediate. Gasoline
refined from the cheaper crude sells for just as much wholesale,
though, leaving fatter margins for the refiners who can use cheaper
In fact, a majority of oil used by U.S. refineries now is the cheaper, heavy-sour grade.
James Gibbs, the head of Frontier Oil Corp., which owns
refineries in Kansas and Wyoming, said in a recent conference call with
analysts that the company had bought Canadian oil in January that was
less than half the cost of West Texas Intermediate.
"We’re going to make money because we’re going to run every barrel of Canadian crude we can get our hands on," he said.
To reach Steve Everly, call 816-234-4455 or send e-mail to [email protected]